I have listed most of the sources I used for this site. The only omissions are out of print books I took the odd photo from, but which otherwise had little bearing on this subject. There is also a section on War Department manuals. Many were used as reference material for this site, but not all. I have included a few that while not used, have material which would provide information on the Browning machine guns in other configurations, such as water-cooled ground guns. Bookfinder.com is a good source for out of print volumes.

>Colt Automatic Machine Guns and Rifles Catalog and Manual, 1993 reprint of original manual. This volume is out of print but copies can be obtained from BMG Parts. Photos and fold-out schematics of some of the finest Colt Brownings ever produced. Classics like the MG38, the spade gripped MG38B & tank MG38BT, the MG40, .50 caliber ground water-cooled guns and the aircraft MG53-2, as well as the BAR. If I could own only one book on the Browning, this would be it. The quality of this reprint is stunning. The MG40 schematic at the bottom of the .30 cal. page came from this book.
>Hard Rain, 2002, by Frank Iannamico.
>Aircrewmans Gunnery Manual,
1944, restricted, issued by Aviation Training Division, Office of Chief of Naval Operations, U.S. Navy in collaboration with Army Air Forces.
>Weapon Mounts for Secondary Armament, 1957, prepared for Detroit Arsenal, Ordnance Corps., U.S. Army by G. O. Novill & Associates.
>The Machine Gun , 1951, Vol. 1, by George Chinn, Lieutenant Colonel, USMC.
Small Arms of the World, 9th edition,
1969, by W.H.B Smith.
>Small Arms of the World, 11th edition, 1977, by W.H.B Smith, revised by Edward C. Ezell.
>Seaplanes & Flying Boats,2003, by Bill Yenne, BCL Press, New York.
>Maintenance Manual, 1941, B-25, North American Aviation.
>American Bomber Aircraft Vol. 1 Consolidated B-24 Liberator, 1993, by John & Donna Campbell, Schiffer Military/Aviation History, Atglen, PA.
> The Liberator Legend - the Plane and the People, by Turner Publishing Company, 1990.
>The Official Pictorial History of the AAF, 1947, By the Historical Office of the Army Air Forces, Duell, Sloan & Pierce New York.
Log of the Liberators by Steve Birdshall, 1973 by Doubleday & Company, Inc. The illustrated combat record of the B-24 Liberator and the men and units that flew them.
>Air Force - A Pictorial History of American Air Power, Vol. 2, Outraged Skies/Wings of Fire, 1957, by Martin Caidin, Bramhall House.
>Airwar, Vol. 1, Terror From the Skies/Tragic Victories,1971, by Edward Jablonski, Doubleday & Co.
>Bombers, 2000 by Phillip Caplan, Barnes & Noble.
>Liberator - Consolidated Vultee, 1989, General Dynamics Corporation. Issued by General Dynamics to mark the 50th anniversary of the B-24's maiden flight. It features the B-24J maintained by the Collings Foundation. General Dynamics funded much of the restoration of the aircraft.
>America in the Air War, 1982, By Edward Jablonski, Time-Life Books.
>B-24 Liberator 1939-45, by Martin W. Bowman, 1979 and 1989 by Patrick Stevens Limited, England.
>Bombers of WW2, By Jeffrey Ethell, 2001, Lowe & B. Hould
>Great American Bombers of W.W.II, 1998, by William Hess, Frederick Johnson & Chester Marshall, MBI Publishing Company.
>Consolidate B-24 Liberator, 2003, by Michael O'Leary, Osprey Publishing Limited.
>Small Arms Review, Article by Steve Fleischman, Vol. 6, #7, April 2003.
>Shot to Hell - The Stories and Photos of Ravaged WWII Warbirds, 2003, Cory Graff, MBI Publishing Company.
>Gun Camera - World War II, 1999, L. Douglas Keeney, MBI Publishing Company.

I like to know what a book looks like, particularly if it is one I may want to keep an
eye out for at used book stores. Click on a book above to see its cover.

A truly fine magazine. If you are interested in looking into a subscription, click on image.
Click on button at left to see the contents of this CD. It's loaded with WW2 era aircraft gunnery information.
Now on CD !


>TM 9-1225, Ordnance Maintenance, Browning machine Gun, Cal..50, All Types, War Dept., April 15, 1943.
>TM 9-226, Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Water-cooled, and Mounts, War Dept., 2 August, 1943.
>TR 1300-30J, Infantry and Aircraft Types, Browning Machine Gun, Caliber .30, M2, Aircraft, Fixed and Flexible Types, War Dept., July 15 (ca. 1935).
>TM 9-1205, Ordnance Maintenance, Browning Machine Gun, Caliber 30, All Types, and Ground Mounts, War Dept., August, 1944.
>FM 23-45, Basic Field Manual, Browning Machine Gun, Caliber .30, HB, M1919A4, Ground, War Dept., 1940.
>FM 23-50, FM 23-45, Basic Field Manual, Browning Machine Gun, Caliber .30, HB, M1919A4 (Mounted in Combat Vehicles), War Dept., August 12, 1942.
>FM 23-55, Basic Field Manual, Browning Machine Gun, Caliber .30, M1917,
War Dept., 1940.
>FM 23-55, Browning Machine Guns, Caliber .30 M1917A1,
M1919A4, and M1919A6
, War Dept., July, 1945.

>Get That Fighter, November 1, 1943, Army Air Forces Operation Analysis Section.
>Gunnery Sense, May, 1943 Training Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, U.S. Navy
>Central School for Flexible Gunnery, Laredo Army Air Field, Laredo Texas. Albert Love Enterprises, Atlanta Georgia, ca 1941.
>Handbook of Aircraft Armament, 1918, Bureau of Aircraft Production, Air Service, U.S. Army

This is a link to my other Browning sights which deal mainly with ground water-cooled and air-cooled .30 caliber weapons.
Link to Browning sites

Not from my dad's unit, the 461st BG, but taking part in the same mission, this Liberator from the 464th BG took a flak hit to the left wing. Lift from the right wing has caused the aircraft to roll. Dad saw this happen from his nose turret. This is one of the most frequently reprinted aviation photos from WW2. This is how the photo appeared in Sortie (I believe. Could have come from Stars and Strips - dad didn't note the source) Only one crew member survived. In the upper left hand corner dad has written, "Saw this happen on 18th Mission." It was actually the 15th - a mission in support of the 8th Army's push across the Senio river on the 10th of April, 1945. The aircraft is a B-24M.

Appearing to hang suspended, this Liberator was cut in half by a direct flak hit.

A direct flak hit to the nose of this B-25 Mitchell killed the navigator and bombardier instantly. The pilot was able to limp back to friendly territory where the remaining crew parachuted to safety.
Tight formations often meant that a flak hit to one bomber would cause a domino effect. Here the body of an airman from a disintegrating plane higher in the formation has hit the outer wing panel of this B-25D and sheared it off. The efficient and thin Davis wing was a tremendous improvement over the broad profile and lower lift characteristics of the B-17's wing, but the tradeoff was the Davis wing could not stand up to much punishment. This incident occurred during one of the early missions over Ploesti, Romania, the Third Reich's major oil refining facility and the most heavily defended target in Europe.